DMSP Nighttime Lights of India Workshop
 Chairman : Chris Elvidge [ chris.elvidge@noaa.gov ]
 Members :  Earth Monitoring Working Group
 Objectives :

NGDC has produced a nineteen year time series of satellite observed nighttime lights of India using data collected by DMSP. In this workshop we will explore the time series and review applications that have been developed for DMSP data in India, including tracking the expansion of the electric grid, spatial variability in the stability of the electric grid, modeling the spatial distribution of economic activity, and modeling the spatial distribution of constructed surfaces.

 Target Audience : Social scientists, economists, geographers, remote sensing scientists.
 Expected Number of Participants :  20
 Agenda :

Session One:

1. DMSP Nighttime Lights of India - (Chris Elvidge, NOAA, USA)   Slides

Abstract: NOAA-NGDC has produced a nineteen year time series of satellite observed nighttime lights using data collected by the DMSP Operational Linescan System (OLS). One of the countries showing the most widespread growth and changes in lighting over time is India. In this session we will examine the dynamism of the nighttime lights of India, the types of lighting detected, and the potential use of satellite observed lighting in modeling the spatial distribution of economic activity and infrastructure development.

2. Telecommuting 11.5 Time Zones - (Tilottama Ghosh and Kimberly Baugh, CIRES University of Colorado, USA)   Slides

Abstract:In January 2011 one of the CIRES staff members participating in the generation of DMSP nighttime lights relocated to Delhi and has continued working remotely. The telecommuting involves the visual analysis of satellite image quality and remote processing of large volumes of satellite image to make global maps of lights present at the Earth surface. Several times each week the accumulated orbits are downloaded from NGDC to a computing facility in Delhi, where the lines delineating the highest quality data are visually marked. The presentation will review the difficulties that have been encountered and the work around solutions that have been developed.

3. Assessing Income Distribution at the District Level for India Using Nighttime Satellite Imagery - (Mayuri Chaturvedi (Indicus Analytics, India), Tilottama Ghosh (CIRES, USA; Indicus Analytics, India), Laveesh Bhandari (Indicus Analytics, India))   Slides

Abstract:The potentiality of the nighttime lights satellite imagery to estimate economic activity of administrative units at a finer resolution has only recently been examined. In addition, the use of Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's (DMSP) radiance-calibrated nighttime images, vis-ид-vis stable lights images, has enhanced the possibility of making better estimations of economic activity at finer resolutions.

Furthermore, the use of broadband internet connection has quickened the downloading process of huge datasets. This has made it possible to use these large datasets for a wide range of applications, such as, global mapping of socio-economic parameters, greenhouse gas emissions, extent of urbanization and its ecological impact, mapping exurban areas, mapping fire and fire-prone areas, and, light pollution. However, the relationship between nighttime imagery and income distributions has never been explored before.

In this paper, we developed a method to explore the relation between households in different income brackets at the district level for India, and the radiance-calibrated nighttime image of 2004. Besides the radiance-calibrated data of 2004, estimates of household incomes and number of households in different income brackets, made by Indicus Analytics (specialized economic research firm, based in New Delhi, India) were used.

The results were mapped and insights were drawn for all districts based on their socio-economic profile. These results illustrate the advantage of using this easily available data for determining income inequalities, especially in information-deficient countries such as India.

Session Two:

4. Night Lights and Economic Activity in India - A study using DMSP-OLS night time images   Slides
- Laveesh Bhandari laveesh@indicus.net and Koel RoyChowdhary koel.roychowdhury@indicus.net, Indicus Analytics, New Delhi, India

Abstract: This paper investigates the association between night lights and GDP estimates for India at the district level. While many studies are finding a high degree of association between economic activity as measured through the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and night lights internationally, there is a lack of understanding of whether and how night light data are correlated with economic activity at the sub-national level in emerging economies. This achieves more significance in economic monitoring and policy-making as estimates of GDP are not available at geographically disaggregated level, and even if available there is a large time lag involved before they are released.

Stable light data obtained from night time images of 2008 captured by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program - Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) satellite are used in the study. The data records artificial lights from human habitations from the earth surface and is a surrogate of the level of development of an area. The data on GDP at the district level for the year 2008 have been sourced from Indicus Analytics that has used data from government sources and a method of estimation suggested by the Central Statistical Office of the Government of India.

Using multinomial non-linear regression techniques the paper finds that indeed GDP at the district level is significantly explained by night lights in the area. It also finds that the non-linearity is much stronger for metropolitan cities where GDP levels are far higher than a linear model can explain. Conversely, in areas where agriculture and forestry activities are higher, the use of night lights in a linear model overestimates the GDP.

5. Monitoring Built-up areas using DMSP-OLS nighttime lights data: A study from Indo-Gangetic Plane Region, India   Slides
- Pranab Kanti Roy Chowdhury roychowdhury.pranabk@gmail.com

Abstract: In this study, an approach has been attempted for monitoring the growth of built-up areas at a regional level using coarse resolution datasets. Two freely downloadable satellite datasets, DMSP-OLS nighttime stable lights and MODIS NDVI, have been integrated for the estimation and monitoring of built up areas on a per pixel basis. The study area chosen for this purpose is the Indo-Gangetic Plane region of India, which is one of the densely populated regions in the planet and is currently undergoing rapid expansion of built-up areas. The DMSP-OLS datasets due to its free availability, wide swath and high temporal resolution has proved to be very useful for this purpose. This study highlights the benefits of using free satellite datasets downloadable over the internet and presents an approach for regional level monitoring of built-up areas within limited time and minimal cost.

6. eResearch - Suhaimi Napis, UPM

 Remarks : Will include demo of this system: www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/imaps/isamapper/

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